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Product Applications for photovoltaics include Rapid Photonic Annealing from PulseForge, Electrical Characterisation equipment from Semilab and Conductive Inks supplied by NovaCentrix.

Metrology in Photovoltaics

Semilab offer In-Line Process Control measurement and high quality in-line photoluminescence imaging to qualify wafers.  Additional in-line modules are available for sheet resistance measurement to control coatings. This is in addition to versatile, multi-function lab tools to enable R&D and assist quality assurance.

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Thin Film Applications for PV

In order to keep the thin film solar cell production stable, the adequate control of the layer deposition and treatment processes is crucial. Semilab offers several metrology solutions for the characterization of electrical and optical properties of the thin layers.  Our special design Four-Point-Probe and Eddy Current sensors provide accurate measurement of the sheet resistance of thin semiconductor, TCO or even metal layers in the total range of interest.

Using Semilab’s „Spectroscopic Ellipsometry” and „Spectroscopic Haze and Reflectance” techniques the complete characterization of the layer thickness and other optical parameters can be accomplished even on multilayer structures.


Commercial Scale Wafer Coating:  with fluidised bed reactor that provides our most cutting-edge research capabilities on a single, configurable machine. Forge Nano has installed PROMETHEUS in laboratories and universities all over the world. Forge Nano scientists run PROMETHEUS systems every day for in-house ALD research. The system features a variety of reactor sizes that enable research from 1g to 20kgs of material.Prometheus was designed to accelerate the development of commercial PALD applications. Prometheus is lab-scale and built with scalability in mind. With multiple reactor sizes available, batch size is adjustable.

Getting More from Solar Cell Manufacturing

Improve production economics with advanced Digital Thermal Processing™ with the PulseForge Invent for research, PulseForge InLine or PulseForge Embed for production. Digital Thermal Processing delivers applied energy through intense pulsed light (IPL), using non-equilibrium processing for improvements in how cells are produced. PulseForge tools have been used in production for years, making a wide range of devices. Customer experience and recent publications demonstrate effectiveness in photovoltaics, with some key benefits, for example:

  • Shortened thermal processing from minutes down to seconds

  • Improved overall efficiency due to higher open-circuit voltages and fill factors

  • Reduced energy consumption due to on-demand energy delivery with no pre-heating

  • Reduced Ag cost by using less material while achieving comparable or improved erformance

  • Reduced space requirement vs tunnel ovens since PulseForge tools are typically only 2 mtrs long or less

Metalon® Conductive Inks for PV

Silver screen print inks  highly-conductive,  off-the-shelf and customized inks satisfy full-scale manufacturing, prototyping, and research budgets.

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